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Design Movements to Know: What is Bauhaus Design?

Love a good lesson in design history? Well, you’ve come to the right place. At Modsy, we love looking back at design movements of the past and exploring how they impact trends and styles today.

One era that we’re seeing continually influence design today is the Bauhaus design movement. What started as a school in Germany quickly became a philosophical approach to design that took the global design world by storm. Interested in learning more about this iconic moment in design history? Read on for the full scoop on Bauhaus interior design, with insights from our resident design historian, Alessandra Wood. Plus, we’re sharing how we’re seeing Bauhaus influences show up in the design world today!

The Bauhaus was a German art school that operated from 1919-1933.

The Bauhaus school in Dessau, Germany.

What is Bauhaus?

So, what exactly is Bauhaus? Is it a design style? A movement? It’s actually a little of both—but before it was either, it was a school. The Bauhaus was a German art school that operated from 1919-1933.

“The school was founded under the principle of unifying all the different art and design disciplines,” says Alessandra. She says it was all about bringing artists and designers together, to learn from and be inspired by each other rather than each field of art being “siloed” on its own. The school sought to elevate craftsmanship to the level of fine art, getting rid of the distinction between craftsman and artist. (Craftsmanship including trades and mediums like architecture, interior design, crafts, and textiles.) As such, the Bauhaus served as a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts.

The Bauhaus school of design was established by architect Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany, where it was until moving to Dessau in 1925. From 1932-33, the school was located in Berlin.

Photo of Walter Gropius taken circa 1919.

Photo of Walter Gropius taken circa 1919.

“Gropius wasn’t the first thinker with this idea of unifying the arts, but the Bauhaus was very formative in changing the trajectory of how we view the arts today,” says Alessandra. “It was revolutionary.” The school became famous for its approach to design and the unification of art, craft, and technology. In this creative space, individual artistic vision was combined with craftsmanship and modern mass manufacturing techniques in an attempt to bring together function and aesthetic.

Alessandra adds, “Gropius was also really interested in design and production. He wanted to create things that were accessible to the masses. He was really driven by ‘good design’ and bringing good design to all people.”

The Bauhaus school was only in existence for 14 years due to pressure from the Nazi regime (they dissaproved of the school and what it stood for, seeing it as an epicenter of communist intellectualism). But the design principles that the school established lived on—as faculty and graduates of the Bauhaus left Germany and found refuge around the world, bringing their design philosophies with them.

Alessandra says that, as instructors and students left Germany, they brought the philosophy of the Bauhaus with them. Many stepped into positions where they were teaching the next generation of architects and designers, which “shaped the whole movement of design, internationally, and eventually became the basis of the Mid-Century Modern design movement.”

What are the main principles of Bauhaus interior design?

The Bauhaus school and subsequent design movement was all about simplicity, which had a major impact on modern furniture and interior design. Bauhaus style focuses on reducing designs down to their most basic elements, resulting in clean, minimalist spaces; streamlined forms; and an absence of ornamentation. The intention is to create harmony between an object’s function and design. 

In the realm of furniture design, this simplicity also lent itself to mass production. Bauhaus artists embraced the industrial technologies of the day, using mass-production techniques to make their designs more accessible.

Read on to learn more about the most iconic and enduring interior design principles of the Bauhaus movement.

Rainbow colored Nesting tables designed by Josef Albers.

Nesting tables designed by Josef Albers.

Form Follows Function

In the world of architecture and interior design, the idea of “form follows function” speaks to the idea that the shape of a building or piece of furniture should primarily relate to its intended purpose. Translation? Keep ornamentation and frills to a minimum, focusing first and foremost on practicality of use. In the Bauhaus philosophy, a sofa is no good if it’s beautiful but not comfortable. A chair is useless if it can’t comfortably support you. A lamp is primarily for adding accent lighting to a room not to make a style statement.

That’s not to say that Bauhaus design is strictly utilitarian. However, the purpose of a piece of furniture or decor should be the starting point for its design. The result is that practicality and functionality were valued by Bauhaus designers more than aesthetics.

“This idea comes out of the early minimalist theory, which negates applied ornamentation,” says Alessandra. “They believed that the function of the piece is so core to its existence, that its aesthetic should merely support the function. Of course, it should be beautiful—but without additives.”

Less is More

The term “less is more” actually originated with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the last director of the Bauhaus school. Bauhaus designs were all about simplicity and reducing pieces to their simplest forms while also keeping them accessible, functional, and with some aesthetic value. Sound familiar? This is a major tenant of minimalist design—and Bauhaus is where many of today’s minimalist design ideas originate.

“Instead of adding ornamentation, like gilding, carvings, or design elements that weren’t inherently part of the function of a piece, Bauhaus artists instead created pieces that celebrated the worker and their ability to produce something functional,” says Alessandra.

The “less is more” approach was also practical as Bauhaus artists explored mass production techniques. “If a piece is super decorative, it’s more difficult to mass produce,” notes Alessandra. “When a piece has a simple form, it can be more easily reproduced and therefore be more accessible to more people.”

Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion, where marble walls take the place of decoration

Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion, where marble walls take the place of decoration

Truth to Materials & Material as Ornament

A core tenant of Bauhaus design is the belief in “truth to materials,” where materials like steelwork and concrete were used in their most “honest” form, resulting in leaving them exposed and unpainted.

This was intimately connected with the elimination of unnecessary ornamentation and embellishments in favor of functionality. By the intentional use of materials that offer inherent ornamentation (which gets at the idea of “material as ornament”), buildings and furniture were kept visually interesting. In the 1920s and 30s, Bauhaus-era designers used materials like tubular steel, glass, wicker, and concrete to bring visual interest without adding additional ornamentation. Today, we see that same philosophy applied through the use of ornamental materials like marble and granite.

“The Bauhaus designers weren’t trying to mask materials they were using,” says Alessandra. “This often came through in the use of natural materials—like stone with rich patterns, leather, or woven materials in a natural colorway, all of which use color and texture to create depth in a design.”

Other notable features of Bauhaus designs:

  • Simple geometric shapes, like rectangles and spheres
  • Buildings, furniture, and fonts with rounded corners
  • Furniture featuring curved chrome metal pipes
  • The use of primary colors
  • The innovative use of materials

Iconic Bauhaus Designs

Some of the most iconic designs from the Bauhaus school and movement are still in production today (both the original designs as well as replicas). Here are a few of the most iconic Bauhaus designs.

Leather and steal Wassily Chair by Marcel Breuer

The Wassily Chair by Marcel Breuer

Also known as the Model B3 Chair, it was designed from 1925-26 by Hungarian modernist architect and furniture designer Marcel Breuer. He was one of the first and youngest students at the Bauhaus. The chair design was inspired by bicycle handlebars; he used the same tubular steel that’s used on bicycle handlebars as the frame of the chair. The form was inspired by an overstuffed club chair, but Breuer significantly simplified the form, then used canvas for the seat, backrest, and arms.

The Barcelona Chair by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Lilly Reich

Bauhaus school director Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed the Barcelona chair in conjunction with architect Lilly Reich for the Barcelona International Exhibition in 1929. The simplistic form of this low lounge chair features two slim cushions over a light, X-shaped stainless steel frame.

“This chair was re-popularized in the mid-century and was used in a ton of Mid-Century Modern designs,” says Alessandra.

The Brno Chair by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

The Brno Chair, also known as a cantilever chair, is a great example of an object being reduced to its most basic elements and form. Designed by van der Rohe in the late 1920s, he was playing around with the idea that a chair doesn’t necessarily have to have four legs. Instead, he designed the Brno Chair in a cantilever style, with the seat being supported by a single C-shaped bar.

“A lot of Bauhaus designers experimented with this shape of chair,” says Alessandra. “In a production setting, you’re bending one piece of metal to get the shape instead of assembling multiple pieces—making mass-production easier. As we think about the Bauhaus philosophy of designing for ease of production, this is part of that ideal coming to life.”

One example of a similar design that has stood the test of time? The Cesca chair, which was designed by Breuer in 1928. The notable difference between the Cesca and Brno chairs is that the Cesca chair was made with tubular steel, while the frame of the Brno chair was made with a flatter steel. However, both used really modern, industrial-first materials and production methods.

The MT8 Lamp (aka the Wagenfeld Table Lamp) by William Wagenfeld and Carl Jakob Jucker

The MT8 Lamp, also known as the Wagenfeld Table Lamp, was designed by Bauhaus students William Wagenfeld and Carl Jakob Jucker in 1923. It later became known as “the Bauhaus Lamp” for the way that it so beautifully embodies the Bauhaus principle of “form follows function.” With a simple circular base, a cylindrical shaft, and a spherical shade, it has a minimalist, geometric shape. It was very economical in its use of materials and the industrial techniques used to produce this lamp.

The Bauhaus Bauspiel by Alma Siedhoff-Buscher

A set of wooden blocks for children, Alma Siedhoff-Buscher (a student in the woodcarving department) designed the Bauhaus Bauspiel as part of an exhibition at the Bauhaus in 1923. The assortment of 22 colorful wooden blocks can be stacked together to create a ship. The design highlights the colors and shapes of the Bauhaus and most certainly follow the “less is more” design principle. Immediately becoming popular, the Bauhaus produced and distributed various versions of this play set, and a replica of this set is still produced today by the Swiss company Naef.

Household Objects by Marianne Brandt

While not one specific design, today Marianne Brandt is known more for her body of work—which includes metal household objects such as lamps, ashtrays and teapots. A German painter, sculptor, photographer, metalsmith, and designer, Brandt studied and later taught at the Bauhaus. She designed her pieces with mass production in mind, and many reproductions are still available today.

Bauhaus-Inspired Designs Today

The philosophies and impact of the Bauhaus are far from in the past. “Today, we see a lot of pieces that were designed by Bauhaus designers continuing to be produced and popular today,” says Alessandra. “People are still using these designs.”

And beyond literal design, Alessandra says the design philosophies of the Bauhaus school are still being practiced today by many designers. “Minimalism is still very popular, as is the idea of creating pieces and homes with a ‘less is more’ approach.” We’re also continuing to see a lot of “material as ornament” in the re-popularization of natural materials in interior design. “Designers today are still leveraging beautiful natural materials like marble, leather, and caning to create that sense of ornamentation without added ornamentation,” says Alessandra.

Alessandra also notes that, in the past several years, there have been a lot of furniture and home decor brands emerging that are trying to create “good design for the masses,” with pieces that can be easily and affordably reproduced. “A lot of the pieces we carry here at Modsy follow that same sentiment—we carry pieces that are beautiful, well-designed, and affordable while also making interior design accessible to more people.”

Want to actually see how our Modsy designers are using the principles, shapes, and materials or the Bauhaus design movement in their designs today? Scroll down for some beautiful examples.

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Understated and Functional

For this living room inspired by the Bauhaus, we kept things pure and true to the philosophy of this movement: form follows function. This was the primary motivating factor behind the design. The furniture itself is simple; however, each piece is shapely, featuring interesting frames and solid textile surfaces. The interest and movement comes from the primary colors in this space—which were widely used when color was used in the original Bauhaus era. And the marble-top coffee table? Material as ornament at its finest. The overall design is understated from today’s perspective of style, but it’s functional and welcoming all the same.

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A Timeless Classic

The iconic forms of Bauhaus furniture (and Bauhaus-inspired pieces) are truly timeless. Exhibit A: the cantilever chairs. Their form is so striking—an art piece in and of themselves. We centered the design of this dining room around the chairs, creating a space that is inspired by the Bauhaus movement but could easily be in a millennial’s home today. By keeping the decor minimal but layering some texture with artwork, the rattan-clad chairs, and the faux hide rug, this space is simplistic in each piece individually. But together, it creates a rich and unique look that spans many decades!

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Sweet Simplicity

Simplicity reigns supreme here! This minimalist bedroom puts function on par with style. In classic Bauhaus fashion, there is little-to-no ornament, save a single piece of art, a few vases, and the spotted rug. But these pieces take a back seat to the sculptural forms of the foundational furniture. Another layer of decoration comes through from the saturated colors in the design. The deep rust bed, gray walls and chair, and blue rug all create a striking visual impact in the space. Modern Bauhaus style at its finest!

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Breaking the Rules: 9 Ways to Play With Scale and Proportion in Unexpected Ways

If you’ve seen our guide to scale and proportion, you already know they’re important decorating principles, just like symmetrical balance in interior design.

For a quick refresher, scale and proportion refer to how things relate in size visually (and physically) in a room. Having the right scale and proportion across your furniture and decor will give your space a more balanced look and feel. For example, you want to pair a spacious sectional with a coffee table that’s relatively large in size.

But sometimes you have to toss the rules. Consider a large sofa paired with a non-rectangular rug or a room with just one giant art piece. These are examples of how by breaking the rules of scale and proportion, you can create moments that add drama and visual impact to a room.

We recommend understanding the rules before trying to break them, of course. You can always check out our interior design 101 guides to make sure you have the decorating basics down.

Otherwise, here are a few of our favorite unexpected ways to play with scale and proportion!

breaking the rules of scale and proportion1. Play With A Large Rug Size

A rug that’s proportional to the size of your room is key. Which means a very large room with high ceilings can be tricky. Consider a large cowhide or an irregularly shaped rug.

In this bedroom, the size of the cowhide rug helps to offset the large space and high ceilings. It does so by drawing the eye down and towards the bed, the main focus of the room. Additionally, whereas a rectangular rug would have felt rigid in such a large room, the cowhide’s organic shape breaks up the straight lines and gives the overall space a more effortless look and feel. And because it’s placed at an angle, with part of the rug under the bed, it helps to ease up the flow of the overall space by making the room feel open but not vast and empty.

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

2. Contrast With A Floor Vase

Large-scale decor pieces meant for your floors are a great way to play with scale in a room. Try a giant floor vase that visually matches up in size and proportion to your furniture.

In this corner, the floor vase is far larger than any of the other decorative pieces. What it also does is serve as a second focal point that evens out the cabinet. Its scale is almost that of a small tree plant rather than an accent. Next to the large sideboard, it fits into the space by way of its size and becomes a decorative touch that goes one step further to add impact beyond the other objects and accents.

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

3. Offset With Statement Art

Adding large art is a surefire way to play with the visual scale and proportion in a space. Try hanging a single art piece in a room as a way to create focus and balance.

In this living space, a large-scale artwork is tucked behind a small side table, filling a space but also helping to center the focus of the room. By hanging it off to the side between the sofa and the table, it directs attention to the side table area by way of its large size. At the same time, it also helps to balance out the substantially sized sofa.

breaking the rules of scale and proportion

4. Activate Walls With Small Art

On the opposite end of the spectrum, small art can add just as much drama to a space when used to set off empty wall space.

In this bedroom, the art piece helps to “activate” the negative wall space, meaning it’s the only break on the intentionally bare walls. What it does here is raise the overall focus in the room by being placed slightly above the rest of the low-profile furniture. That ultimately guides our eye up towards the art and ultimately makes the furniture seem less low to the ground. You can even play with hanging small art a bit higher for a more dramatic effect, but the key is to make sure it’s not hung so high that it feels out-of-place or simply floating.

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

5. Juxtapose With Mismatched Nightstands

Mismatched furniture is another way you can purposefully break up scale and proportion in a room. The easiest place to start mixing up your furniture is with bedroom nightstands, which usually come in pairs or sets.

In this bedroom, the tall dresser offsets the size of the small side table to the right of the bed. The dresser’s large size and structured form is the complete opposite of the small, thin, and delicate side table. The result is a look boldly contrasted in scale, proportion, and every other way. However, by positioning a pendant light above the small table, it adds height and balances out the overall space.

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

6. Break It Up With Lighting

Lighting is one of the most common accents you can use to break up scale and proportion in a room. Depending on where they’re placed, they can add major visual impact.

In this living room, the hanging pendants and floor lamps are sculptural and dramatic and they offer a hint of shape and form against the white walls. For instance, the floor lamp arms extend high over the low-profile back of the sofa but it doesn’t feel out of place. Instead, it contrasts with the low sofa in a way that pulls together the design of the room. In the same way, our eye is guided up by the pendant, which visually bridges the mantel and artwork with the furniture.

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

7. Experiment With Gallery Wall Size

Gallery walls are often super organic in shape, which makes them fun to experiment within a space. You can easily scale yours up or down for a gallery wall size that’s focused or expansive. How you do it is up to you.

For this bedside, the gallery wall takes over the space in a way that not only draws attention to the art but also steers the focus away from the bed. That’s because the size and scale of the gallery wall as a whole are much larger than the headboard, which gives the art a more commanding presence in the room. If you’re working with a plain white upholstered bed, this is a great way to spread the focus in your room.

breaking the rules of scale and proportion

8. Anchor Spots With Large Decor

Similar to a large floor vase, you can scale up or down your decorative objects intentionally depending on where and how they might fit into your space.

In this living room, the oversize white organic vase on the coffee table has a larger scale that stands out among the other decorative pieces in the room. So it helps ground the center of the space. Additionally, because there aren’t layers of pillows on the sofa, the vase actually feels proportionately balanced among the furnishings. However, if you’re going for this look, consider all the other elements in your room first, so that you don’t overcrowd your space visually with large objects and “stuff.”

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breaking the rules of scale and proportion

9. Create Focus With Small Wall Accents

Small mirrors and artwork are often placed in unexpected places, where they can offset the focus. Try layering a small mirror with large furnishings to switch up sightlines and draw the eye.

In this living area, an antique mirror placed above a large-scale dresser is equally captivating despite its smaller size. Moreover, the decorative objects on the dresser help round out the look and add to the look by making the difference in scale appear intentional and intriguing.

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Global Style – 1 Room, 5 Cities, 5 Design Styles

design styles – MoroccoWhere in the world are you dreaming about traveling? France, Iceland, Morocco, Portugal or Sweden? While a life-changing, intercontinental move may be out of reach, we’re always up for clever ways to bring the vacation vibes to us.

While daydreaming about some travel hot-spots, we decided to try and recreate the look and feel of each city in our own apartments, without setting foot on a plane.

From the minimal but cozy feel of Iceland, to Portugal’s oceanic color palette and tile work, we created 5 different design styles, based on 5 beautiful cities and tips for anyone who wants to achieve the look.

The City: Cascais, Portugal

design styles – Portugal

The Style: Rustic Traveler

Cascais is a beautiful coastal resort town west of Lisbon, which is known for its historic landmarks and gorgeous beaches. We designed this room around a color palette that reflects the ocean and Cascais’ sunny weather. True to the Modsy Rustic Traveler style, the room is full of pieces that feel special and collected, maybe even passed down for generations.design styles – Portugal

How to get the style

Start by layering lots of patterns in sunny yellows and bright blues. Next, look to natural materials, which bring this style to life. Note how the rattan chairs and daybed add texture, especially when paired with soothing pops of color.

Don’t be afraid to mix up textures – this look is about a casual mix of eclectic pieces. Warm leather tones blend beautifully with rich velvets. You can even take decor inspiration from the sea by using collected seashells and ocean themed art.

Must-have pieces

The Avalon Daybed from Serena & Lily is very special piece – a perfect place for napping in the warm sun. You can dream about a trip to Portugal, even if you live far from it. We also love the Ikat Ottoman from Wisteria. It adds vibrancy and comfort to the space, while the colors evoke the palette of gorgeous Portuguese tile work.

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The City: Paris, France

design styles – Paris

The Style: Chic Collector

A city centered around fashion and the arts, Paris exudes a sense of luxury and glamour. We incorporated these chic elements into the space by pairing rich velvets with marble and brass finishes. A beautiful glass chandelier and statement art create a sense of opulence.

Who lives here? Probably a stylish curator, immersed in Parisian culture with a taste for the finer things. Someone who enjoys collecting interesting pieces over time, inspired by their love for design.

design styles – ParisHow to get the style

The key to recreating this look is layering colors, patterns and textures. Royal blue and teal are offset by lighter pastels and colorfully patterned rugs. Look for white marble pieces that are  balanced with brass finishes to bring warmth to the space.

Velvet and tasseled decorative accent pillows introduce an eclectic, curated feel to the space, rendering it more personal and vibrant.

Must have pieces

The Robey Curved Sofa from CB2 is the perfect statement piece for a living room. The Waterfall Arched Chandelier and Gold Movement Wall Art from Anthropologie are also great pieces that add a sense of glam to any home. Tres chic!

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The City: Stockholm, Sweden

design styles – StockholmThe Style: Mod Enthusiast

Calling all Mid Century Modern aficionados! We know your love of Scandinavian design will pull you right into our Stockholm apartment.

This design is for a person who lives a minimalist lifestyle and is drawn toward spaces that feel open and completely functional.

We’ve left most of the flooring bare to highlight the beautiful detail of this particular studio apartment. Color has been added in very specific pops – giving a nod to the fact that this person is most likely a curator of their own home and is precise with every detail.

design styles – StockholmHow to get the style

Start with a neutral base color palette with pieces such as a neutral sofa and rug. Then, bring in a statement Mid-Century form chair and sculptural coffee table to create a bit of intrigue.

Must have pieces

The Noguchi Coffee Table is a real winner in this space. It helps to anchor the room, providing a true Mid Century statement to set the tone. A close second is the pierre-jeanneret chair which is paired with its matching desk for a great work station just off of the living area.

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The City: Marrakesh, Morocco

design styles – Morocco

The Style: Mod Collector

This Moroccan inspired studio is all about texture. The rug exudes warmth with its comfortable, soft texture. We’ve paired it with an informal seating area of poufs and floor pillows.

Morocco brings elements of casual comfort into the interior space so you’ll see less formal seating and dining areas and instead more comfort-forward pieces such as plush pillows and throws. We’ve also brought in a daybed to function both as a sofa and main sleeping area.

design styles – MoroccoHow to get the style

Creating this look in your own home is easy and fun! Pick a corner and transform it into a comfortable reading nook with floor pillows, drop pendant lights, and plenty of candles and cozy pillows and blankets. Use a tray instead of a formal table for your cup of tea.

Oh, and have tons of fun with color! This style is about mixing different colors, patterns, and textures together with ease.

Must have pieces

The Diamondback Rug is one of our favorites. It’s handmade and so beautiful. It pairs with this style well because of its pattern and texture, however can really work across different style preferences if you decide Morocco is no longer your city style.

The Carved Wood Media Console is a statement that has a carved detailing on its doors. The wood stain adds a touch of warmth to the space without feeling too heavy.

design styles – Morocco

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The City: Reykjavik, Iceland

design styles – Iceland

The Style: Modern Rustic

Reykjavik is a design lover’s delight, packed with edgy, modern aesthetics and functional, cozy elements to withstand the harsh climate. The city’s interiors often feel like retreats from the intense weather.

You won’t see massive homes with wasted space here, instead you find smaller, functional layouts that are shared by young couples or even a small family. This design is perfect for lovers of Modsy’s Modern Rustic style where minimalism is key, and lighter pieces get dressed up in rustic finishes and textures.

design styles – IcelandHow to get the style

This style is all about a balanced, moody color palette and cozy textures like leather, sheepskin, and wicker. We pulled inspiration from the North Atlantic ocean, glacier lagoons, volcanic rock formations and black-sand beaches for this city space. A surprise element like copper or brass adds a modern touch.

Choose foundational pieces that are more on the minimalist side, which you’ll see in the shape of the sofa, but opt for a slipcover, which creates a clean yet homey aesthetic.

A good amount of decor like candles, baskets, pillows, and unique lighting adds warmth. Bring the beautiful elements of the outdoors inside and dress them up with the coziest blanket you have.

Must have pieces

We love the Cedeno Wood Entry Way Bench from Birch Lane. It offers additional seating when entertaining but it doesn’t feel heavy or take up a lot of space. It has the charm and warmth of a rustic piece with all of the conveniences of minimalism!

The Reynisfjara Beach, Iceland Print from Crate & Barrel is an ode to the natural wonders of the country. The soft blues and greens add some color amongst the black and white palette. The Blaire Antique Brass Desk Lamp, also from Crate & Barrel is a fun piece that almost mimics a candelabra, a perfect example of traditional and modern meeting in the middle.

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